Density Waves in Solids (Frontiers in Physics) by George Gruner

By George Gruner

Discusses the theoretical and experimental situation of 2 novel kinds of damaged symmetry flooring states of metals, cost, and spin density waves. DLC: cost density waves.

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The various broken symmetry ground states have several common characteristics which are well known for the extensively studied superconducting state (see, for example, Schrieffer, 1963; Tinkham, 1975). For all condensates, the order parameter is complex, and can be written as For the superconducting ground states, gauge symmetry is broken; the phase is invariant under a gauge transformation. In contrast, for the density wave ground states, the translational symmetry is broken. While the time and spatial derivatives play an important role in the dynamics of the collective modes, the above difference between the superconducting and density wave ground states leads naturally to different collective excitations and also to differences in the coupling of the collective modes to applied electromagnetic fields.

In case of the density wave states, the gap occurs at ±kF. In the superconducting state, the collective mode leads to a supercurrent in response to dc fields. In the case of density waves, however, the collective mode does not contribute to the dc conduction (this is due to the interaction with impurities and lattice imperfections), and the appearance of a gap in the single particle excitation spectrum at the Fermi level 12 1. The One-Dimensional Electron Gas Table 1,1. Various broken symmetry ground states of one-dimensional metals.

B38, 39 (1988). 25 eV (Jerome and Schultz, 1982). Members of other groups of organic linear chain compounds have also been found to develop a spin density wave ground state. The organic salts, (MDT-TTF)2X, where MDT-TTF stands for methilendithio-tetrathiafulvanele (shown in Fig. , 1990). This material, along with other members of the group, has a linear chain structure formed by MDT-TTF stacks with strongly overlapping orbitals in the stack direction. This then leads to a strongly anisotropic single particle band.

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