By Sanjeev Khagram
Vast dams equipped for irrigation, energy, water offer, and different reasons have been one of the such a lot effective symbols of monetary improvement for a lot of the 20th century. Of past due they've got turn into a lightning rod for demanding situations to this imaginative and prescient of improvement as anything deliberate by way of elites with scant regard for environmental and social consequences—especially for the populations which are displaced as their homelands are flooded. during this booklet, Sanjeev Khagram strains alterations in our rules of what constitutes acceptable improvement during the transferring transnational dynamics of huge dam construction.
Khagram tells the tale of a growing to be, yet contentious, global society that includes novel and more and more efficacious norms of acceptable habit in such parts as human rights and environmental defense. The transnational coalitions and networks led via nongovernmental teams that espouse such norms could appear vulnerable compared to states, enterprises, and such overseas firms because the global financial institution. but they turned a growing number of potent at changing the rules and practices of those traditionally extra robust actors and companies from the Nineteen Seventies on.
Khagram develops those claims in a close ethnographic account of the transnational struggles round the Narmada River Valley Dam initiatives in critical India, a major advanced of thirty huge and greater than 3 thousand small dams. He bargains extra substantiation via a comparative ancient research of the political financial system of huge dam tasks in India, Brazil, South Africa, and China in addition to through interpreting the altering habit of foreign enterprises and international businesses. the writer concludes with a dialogue of the area fee on Dams, an cutting edge try out within the overdue Nineties to generate new norms between conflicting stakeholders.
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Additional info for Dams and Development: Transnational Struggles for Water and Power
Famines). 100 And more recent theoretical arguments suggest that most authoritarian rulers will prey on societies to maximize their own self-interests, and thus not promote long-term development goals as predicted. Without mechanisms that hold dictators accountable, these actors are likely to either consume scarce resources privately or squander them publicly. 101 In other words, most forms of dictatorship-and the ones that have been most likely to exist empirically-are injurious to development because they may either provide too few or too many government services.
The "River Boards Act" authorized the appointment of river valley authorities by the Centre in consultation with the States to advise on integrated development of inter-state rivers and river basins. 28 The "Inter-State River Water Disputes Act;' to the contrary, gave States the right to petition the Centre to establish a water disputes tribunal when their interests in the waters of an inter-state river were affected prejudicially by the actions of one of more other states. " 30 The Centre's role in water resources development was further expanded relative to the States by two other persistent features of India's political system.
And de- 26 Dams and Development mocratization is increasingly conditioned by transnationally allied pro-democracy actors and the globalizing spread of democratic norms. 126 DEVELOPMENT, DEMOCRACY, AND DAMS IN TRANSNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE To summarize: in this book I argue that transnationally allied nongovernmental organizations, grassroots groups, and social movements have unexpectedly altered the political economy of development. This transformation in development has been conditioned by the global spread and international institutionalization of norms and principles in the issue-areas of environment, human rights, and indigenous peoples, among others.