Cultures, Communities, Competence, and Change by Forrest B. Tyler

By Forrest B. Tyler

Cultures, groups, Competence, and Change offers a transcultural psychosocial perception of the character of person and social task. the writer provides an built-in view of ways humans improve a psychosocially-based know-how of themselves and their milieus to form what he refers to as their `internested' social platforms. In so doing he demanding situations present deficit/prevention emphases within the supporting disciplines and promotes a optimistic, prosocial version of person and social methods to change.

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As the most critically powerful determining factor shaping world events, our evolving human spirituality is preserved, but, it is interpreted in terms that do not conflict with modern science [italics added] .... In another approach, morality is viewed in terms of a supreme plan for existence on planet earth [italics added]. (p. 12) Sperry's suggestion may provide an important pathway to an increased likelihood of human survival. However, he did not address the problems that arise from differences between the values imposed by some belief systems and those of scientific perspectives.

Hyland (1985) added that the more levels of analysis we exclude, the more we restrict the meaning that we obtain, ending up with less complete truths. Describing any phenomenon from the perspective of only one system limits our knowledge and understanding of the meaning of that phenomenon. Specifying the nature of the relationships between levels of analysis BACKGROUND 23 presents a more complex problem. Reciproca! causation between these levels suggests that what Sperry (1992) called reciproca!

In contrast, psychologists in applied areas have explicitly and directly been concerned with the value (however measured) of specific effects and, even more directly, with accepting responsibility for producing those effects. Until recently, both frameworks assumed that people's lives developed within a universal, homogeneous context and an evolutionary perspective with regard to sociocultural and individual differences. Psychologists also assumed, of- BACKGROUND 27 ten implicitly, that their own cultural and social context is the legitimate one on which to base their value judgments.

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