By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on the Status and Future Directions in U.S Weather Modification Research and Operations
The elements on planet Earth is a crucial and infrequently deadly strength in human affairs. Efforts to manage or lessen the damaging affects of climate return some distance in time. during this, the newest nationwide Academies review of climate amendment, the committee used to be requested to evaluate the power of present and proposed climate amendment functions to supply useful affects on water source administration and climate threat mitigation. It examines new applied sciences, studies advances in numerical modelling at the cloud and mesoscale, and considers how advancements in machine features will be utilized to climate amendment. "Critical concerns in climate amendment study" examines the prestige of the technology underlying climate amendment within the usa. It demands a coordinated nationwide study application to reply to primary questions about simple atmospheric strategies, and to handle different matters which are impeding development in climate amendment.
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1976) reported that using chaff seeding, they found a reduction in lightning by a factor of three for seeded versus non-seeded storms. Helsdon (1980) numerically simulated the chaff seeding in a two-dimensional cloud model. The results showed that the chaff produced large numbers of positive and negative ions, leading to a decrease in the vertical electric field in the cloud. 1 1 Improved statistical techniques—namely Bayesian methods, which are ideal for accounting for uncertainty and providing spatial-temporal analyses (see Appendix B)—could provide more conclusive results if chaff seeding experiments were conducted again today.
The increase in operational programs over the past 10 years indicates a growing perceived need for enhancing water resources and mitigating severe weather in many parts of the world, including the United States. For users and operators of weather modification technologies, the decision of whether to implement or continue an operational program is a matter of cost-benefit risk management, which raises questions about what constitutes “successful” modification. Cloud-seeding experiments have shown mixed results, but many operational cloud-seeding programs continue, based on what is seen as circumstantial or indirect evidence of positive results.
2); and x development of methods to detect traces of seeding agents in snowpack and rain water. 2 lists four examples in which glaciogenic seeding was used in the expectation that an increase in cloud buoyancy would follow freezing of supercooled water drops. The intent was to seed supercooled clouds with large enough quantities of ice nuclei (100–1000 cm-3) or coolant to cause rapid glaciation. Increased buoyancy was expected to cause the cloud to grow larger, ingest more water vapor, and yield more precipitation.