By Dennis Washburn, A. Kevin Reinhart
This quantity considers the idea that of conversion as a device for knowing variations to modernity. It examines conversions to modernity in the Ottoman area, India, China, and Japan as a response to the pressures of colonialism and imperialism.
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Extra info for Converting Cultures: Religion, Ideology and Transformations of Modernity (Social Sciences in Asia)
As Iwakura admits, the Meiji leadership was in the process of constructing a nation-state and a “single, uniform faith” corresponding to a single, uniform nation was deemed requisite. Confronted by avowed representatives of “Christian Nation[s],”50 the 46 “Urakami kirishitan danatsu ni kansuru taiwasho,” (1870) in ShÖkyÔ to kokka, p. 305. 47 Ibid. , p. 309. 49 Quoted in Abe, “From Prohibition to Toleration,” p. 114. , Dai nihon gaikÔ bunsho vol. 4 (Tokyo: Nihon kokusai kyokai, 1936), p. 640. 18 trent maxey Japanese political imagination could not but seek to project itself, if not as a “Shinto” nation outright, at least as a uniformly “Non-Christian” nation.
In this vein, Kamei and Fukuba called for a “pronouncement ordering the people of the realm to revere 27 According to the doctrine of honji suijaku, Shinto deities were manifestations of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. This doctrine and the political patronage given to Buddhism placed many shrines under the control of large temple complexes. The rivalry between the long-dominant Buddhist clergy and the less privileged Shinto priests fueled much of the reforms undertaken during this period; see Helen Hardacre, Shinto and State, 1868–1988 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), pp.
187, note 66. 55 Ono Jyusshin, ShinkyÔ yÔshi, zen (Place of publication unknown, publisher unknown, 1870). 56 KÔgisho nisshi, in Meiji bunka zenshÖ kensei hen, ed. Meiji bunka kenkyÖkai (Tokyo: Nihon hyÔronsha, 1967), pp. 52, 84–5, 93, 97. 57 In general terms, the debates pitted the Hirata school against the Tsuwano school and Ono. The Hirata school resented Ono’s liberal invention of doctrine, going so far as to accuse him of seeking to found a new religion: “because his doctrine was thought up from Confucian views, it was not based upon the three kami of creation 20 trent maxey The pressure to “proselytize” created by the Urakami Christians, however, did result in some action.