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Additional resources for Concrete Pipe for the New Millennium (ASTM Special Technical Publication, 1368)
Even though coefficients in the equations used to determine shear resistance appear different, the difference is due to units for fr taken as ksi for LRFD and psi for Standard. Neither code mentions the applicability of this shear requirement to sidewalls; however, since this requirement is appropriate for members subject to uniformly distributed loads, we assume the intent of both codes is to apply this allowable shear resistance to both slabs and sidewalls. Shear Resistance of Culverts without Shear Reinforcement for Fill Heights Less Than 2 Feet LRFD incorporates a new approach for evaluating shear resistance in culverts with less than 2 ft of cover that is based on the modified compression-field theory.
6 m), nor do they discuss the analysis and design of three-sided concrete culverts. 6 m) of soil cover and then present a design summary of ten structures. Structural Analysis The geometry of a three-sided concrete culvert can be modeled using either solid brick elements or shell elements to perform three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Frederick et al. [1 and 2] reported detailed finite element analyses on several fiattop three-sided culverts. The finite element results were compared with rigid frame analysis subject to modified design live loading.
Since box culverts with less than 2 ft of fill are designed with live load applied directly to the top slab, we do not consider these sections buried and recommend they be evaluated for fatigue. 3 if this ratio is not known 54 CONCRETEPIPE FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM A review of available information shows there has been little if any research performed on fatigue strength of welded smooth or deformed wire fabric. 0. 0. The overall effect of these requirements, in spite of the generally larger dynamic load allowance factors and smaller strip widths tbr LRFD, show that fatigue governs reinforcement design more frequently for Standard than for LRFD.