By Michael I. Posner PhD
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Additional info for Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention
Attention between vision and kinesthesis—if they could—he also ran participants in a mixed block with an equal proportion of the three types of trial. Finding that the visual dominance effect was eliminated in this mixed block, Klein concluded that the effect was not the consequence of a structural advantage favoring vision, but instead was due to a bias to attend vision under normal circumstances, when input to both modalities is normally correlated. Using the data from Klein (1974, 1977) and Nissen (1974), Posner, Nissen, and Klein (1976) proposed an information-processing account of visual dominance 20 I.
We regard this as a form of exogenous positive priming from the previous action. Importantly, if an endogenous cue is provided before the response that accurately signals the weight of the object to be grasped, then the exogenously activated sequential effects are eliminated entirely. Recently, Chouinard, Leonard, and Paus (2005) used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to temporarily disrupt either the primary motor cortex or the dorsal premotor cortex while participants performed such a sequential lifting task with occasional pre-cues.
Focusing on vision and kinesthesis and using the auditory modality to provide a baseline, he found that switching time from vision to audition was the same as from kinesthesis to audition, whereas switching from audition to kinesthesis was faster than switching from audition to vision. Spence, Nicholls, and Driver (2001) replicated Klein’s design while making several improvements. Most notably, Klein’s stimuli were not only presented to different modalities; they were also presented at different locations in space.