By Peter Ache, Hans Thor Andersen, Thomas Maloutas, Mike Raco, Tuna Taşan-Kok
The crucial objective of many analyses in inhabitants reviews and demography is to give an explanation for cause-effect relationships between variables or occasions. for many years, inhabitants scientists have targeted their efforts on estimating the explanations of results (e.g. What bills for the decline of fertility premiums? ) via utilising average cross-sectional and dynamic regression options, with regression coefficients sometimes being understood as estimates of causal results. the traditional method of infer the consequences of reasons (e.g. what's the impression of girls s labour strength participation on fertility? ) in ordinary sciences and in psychology is to behavior randomised experiments. In inhabitants reviews, experimental designs are unfeasible. however, quasi or ordinary experiments are often played to estimate remedy results. even though, so much study is predicated on non-experimental designs (also known as observational or survey designs). Inferring the consequences of reasons or therapy results from except experimental facts is hard. notwithstanding, therapy results might be inferred from non-experimental info with a counterfactual method. In one of these standpoint, causal results are outlined because the distinction among the capability end result regardless of even if anyone acquired a definite therapy (or skilled a definite cause). The counterfactual method of estimate results of reasons from quasi-experimental information or from observational reports was once first proposed through Rubin (1974). different vital contributions comprise the paintings of James Heckman and collaborators and of Charles Manski and collaborators.
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Additional info for Cities between Competitiveness and Cohesion: Discourses, Realities and Implementation (GeoJournal Library)
Part 1 aims to define the conceptual framework for competitiveness and cohesion. The Chapter by Jan Vranken titled ‘Competitiveness and cohesion: a Janus head? Some conceptual clarifications’ is located in this section. His chapter not only introduces the two concepts and gives an overview on the existing literature, but also introduces the two sides of the coin when it comes to balance economic competitiveness and social cohesion. Part 2 aims at introducing the economic aspects of the competitiveness policy.
Linked to culture, taste and creativity and to co-operation and networking. These ‘weakness conditions (. ) may well result in mass unemployment and, if public transfers of income are not sufficient, emigration and possible abandonment’ (Camagni, 2002). More competitiveness may lead to economic success, but the link with better living conditions for every citizen and with more cohesion in the city is not so certain. Pahl indicates that ‘the more economically successful modern cities are, the greater will be the tendency for income and health polarisation to grow’ (Pahl, 2001).
Pressure from economic restructuring and globalization, they write, imposes the most effective limits on social cohesion. These limits are rendered even more prominent by dominant conservative and ‘pragmatic’ discourses that treat them as inevitable and inalterable constraints and they are reflected in the widely accepted image of European societies as market societies. Competitiveness then becomes the benchmark for social cohesion, marking a reversal between goals and means: social cohesion is not a goal per se, since the lack of cohesion is considered detrimental to economic development, the latter assumed a prerequisite for developing social cohesion (Beauvais and Jenson, 2002: 30).