Building Monetary and Financial Systems: Case Studies in by Charles Enoch, Karl Friedrich Habermeier, Marta

By Charles Enoch, Karl Friedrich Habermeier, Marta Castello-Branco

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X Between 1996 and 2000, economic growth became positive and inflation declined. However, the 1998 regional financial crisis dealt a severe blow to the nascent reforms across the economy and induced banking sector distress. Sharp currency depreciation and debt accumulation made for difficult reforms. x The more recent period, dating back to 2001, has seen the restoration of macroeconomic stability and implementation of major structural reforms. Economic growth has been vibrant, inflation has been reduced to single digit levels, significant remonetization has taken place, some progress has been made in addressing banking sector problems, and monetary instruments have been developed.

By and large, confidence in the banking system has been restored. Two major banks—Inexin and Asia Universal Bank— account for about 40 percent of the total assets of the sector. The increase in minimum capital requirements has not led to a significant consolidation of the banking system as envisaged. 5 percent in 2005. Over the same period, ©International Monetary Fund. 1. Kyrgyz Republic: Guiding Principles for Banking Resolution Principle 1. The NBKR should take timely measures to address problem banks, based on prompt intervention on insolvent banks and intensified measures to ensure that systemically important banks remain sound.

Most of the framework for the effective implementation of monetary policy had been created by this time, including a wide range of monetary instruments (including central bank bills, repo and reverse repo operations, an overnight credit facility, reserve requirements, and the discount rate). Current Situation The new set of monetary instruments still does not function properly, owing to the shallowness of the markets and certain operational deficiencies. In particular, the securities settlement systems are only partially satisfactory, there is no proper collateral, and the maturity profiles of some securities preferred by the markets are missing.

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