Brownian movement and molecular reality by Jean Perrin

By Jean Perrin

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07) kHz. The small decay rate of the molecular states, mol = 2 × , has several important implications. Narrow-line PA opens a new regime, also explored in ytterbium,130 in which the transition linewidth is much smaller than the level spacings even for the least-bound molecular levels. Small mol also implies a weak dipole–dipole interaction between 1S0 and 3P1 atoms February 25, 2014 14:50 Annual Review of Cold Atoms and Molecules, Volume 2 9inx6in b1749-ch01 Degenerate Quantum Gases of Strontium 21 during PA.

Optical Stern–Gerlach separation Several alkaline-earth spin-state detection schemes have been demonstrated. The number of atoms in the highest m F state can be determined by selectively cooling90 or levitating72 atoms in this state. 177 Recording the full m F -state distribution with this method is possible, but needs one experimental run per state. 178 The implementation of this technique for alkali atoms is simple. 179 By contrast, atoms with two valence electrons possess only February 25, 2014 14:50 Annual Review of Cold Atoms and Molecules, Volume 2 9inx6in b1749-ch01 Degenerate Quantum Gases of Strontium 41 a weak, nuclear magnetic moment in the electronic ground state, which would require the application of impractically steep magnetic field gradients.

3. Because of the favorable scattering length of +123 a0 ,14,15,132 there is no need of Feshbach tuning. Ironically, this low-abundance isotope turned out to be the prime candidate among all alkaline-earth isotopes to obtain large BECs and might also allow for sympathetic cooling of other isotopes and elements. 71 The laser cooling stages were already described in Sec. 3. To prepare the evaporative cooling stage, the atoms are transferred into a crossed-beam dipole trap, which is derived from a 16-W laser source February 25, 2014 14:50 26 Annual Review of Cold Atoms and Molecules, Volume 2 9inx6in b1749-ch01 S.

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