Beyond Positivism: Critical Reflections on International by Claire Turenne Sjolander

By Claire Turenne Sjolander

This paintings adopts the idea that the metatheoretical debates approximately positivists and post-positivists have reached an deadlock; it means that an process pushed through theoretical reflexivity deals a foundation on which substitute understandings of diplomacy should be constructed.

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In other words, it is not "either the state or society" but "both the  < previous page < previous page page_153 page_154 next page > next page > Page 154 state and society'' as theoretical objects of inquiry that should be employed in the process of theorizing international relations. The either/or logic leads to a false dichotomy between the state and society, as in the case of the state-centric model. However, the "both/and" logic makes it possible to think of the state and society in relational terms without reducing one to the other.

It is also silent as to how inequalities of social power inform and shape political power at the level of the state and at the level of the international system. Thus, the realist concept of the state renders invisible the unequal gender relations resulting from the virtually exclusive male monopoly over state power. Gender and Liberal Pluralism Liberal pluralist perspectives would appear, at first glance, to offer more fertile ground for theorizing about gender insofar as they have sought to enlarge the scope of international relations theory beyond realism's limited preoccupation with the security dilemma and rigid state-centric focus.

Marx never acknowledged "women's economic contribution to capital in the form of unpaid domestic labor" (Sokoloff, 1980:114). Similarly, in conceiving of women's role in the family strictly as a consumer of her husband's wages rather than a producer of surplus value, Marx ignored the economic contribution of wives to their families, which also served to benefit individual men. Whereas the early Marxist feminists10 attempted to come to grips with some of the deficiencies in classical Marxism's position on women by focusing on women's special relationship to capital, and  < previous page < previous page page_144 page_145 next page > next page > Page 145 integrating the role of unpaid domestic labor in the valorization of capital, the functionalist and reductionist thrust of this type of theoretical explanation has come under sustained criticism (Barrett, 1985).

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