Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre

By Jean-Paul Sartre

The distinguished French philosopher's such a lot crucial textual content, Being and Nothingness takes a innovative examine ontology, ethics, and private freedom  In Being and Nothingness, Jean-Paul Sartre heavily examines ontology (the research of the character of being) and discusses empirical matters that he unearths medical fields fight to give an explanation for. mainly, he delves into the assumption of "freedom over choice," which states that people have whole and overall accountability over their activities. whereas taking care to handle, construct on, and refute the works of Descartes, Husserl, Hegel, and different prior philosophers, Sartre covers "Being-for-itself," "Being-for-others," and ethics, arguing that the physique and the brain are in a position to sharing a real unmarried recognition.   As one of many seminal works of existentialist thought, and hence a top of twentieth-century philosophy, Being and Nothingness is a basic textual content for an individual drawn to the sector. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980) used to be an important voice within the construction of existential proposal. His explorations of the methods human life is exclusive between all life-forms in its ability to settle on proceed to persuade fields similar to Marxist philosophy, sociology, and literary experiences. He was once provided the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, yet refused the consideration.

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But this, in turn, means that this “us” at issue here has undergone a certain transformation, and is no longer this kosmotheoros Merleau-Ponty spoke of, or this “God’s-eye Introduction 25 view” characteristic of modern science. It is not, at least no longer, this pure gaze of mastery: it itself must surrender to the principle of uncertainty that animates nature as such. It itself is no longer secure in its position as a purely contemplative gaze. So—and I cannot stress this point enough—the bifurcation between subject and object is called into question, and radically so, on both sides of the massif of Being.

It is not even enough, therefore, to show, as I will, that the study of contemporary science enables us to undo the ontological presuppositions of classical metaphysics. This critical moment must give way to an exposition of the positive ontology science harbors. If science can be seen as criticizing classical or naive ontology, it is to replace it with a new, positive ontology. This means that, unlike much of what twentieth-century ontology has claimed, and phenomenology in particular, science does indeed provide an access to Being—and, I shall claim, to the ontological difference itself—to the same extent as literature or painting.

No one, I believe, has gone further than Heidegger in this attempt to free a sense of nature, from deep within the way in which it is given to us, there for us, as these beings who stand out in the truth of being, precisely at the place where Being unfolds and opens up. Human beings are witnesses to this burgeoning, and their humanity testi¤es to it. The human being is the being who is only in and through this relation to that which, from the start, situates it, this being that is only in its capacity to shelter that which, from the start, exceeds it.

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