By Hans Pauly
This ebook completes the actual foundations and experimental thoughts defined in quantity 1 with an up to date evaluation of the accent apparatus imperative in molecular beam experiments. It extends the topic to cluster beams and beams of hyperthermal and subthermal energies. As in quantity 1, a unique attempt is made to stipulate the actual foundations of a few of the experimental innovations. for that reason this ebook is meant not just as a reference typical for researchers within the box, but in addition to convey the flavour of present molecular beam study to complicated undergraduates and graduate scholars and to permit them to achieve a great history within the box and its technique.
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Extra resources for Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II: Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications
1 Photodetachment Photodetachment has become possible with the advent of high power lasers [van Zyl et al. (1976}, (1978}, Havener et al. (1989)]. As an example, we describe in the following a device which has been used by Stephen et al. (1996) to produce neutra} bearns of oxygen atorns with energies between 4 and 1000 eV. Negative ions are extracted from a low-voltage gas-discharge source (operated with N 20 which was found to be the optimum species for o- generation), accelerated to an energy of 1000 eV, and mass selected by a Wien filter.
1975), Palfrey and Lundeen (1984)]. Usually, continuous lasers operating at a fiXed frequency are used in these cases, since the fme-tuning of the excitation frequency can be obtained via the Doppler effect (Doppler tuning). Doppler tuning is achieved by either changing the angle between the laser beam and the fast atom beam or by changing the velocity of the atom beam at a fixed angle between laser and atom beam. An early example of this procedure is the excitation of a fast metastable H(2s) beam into the np Rydberg states with 40 < n < 55, using the lN-line of an argon ion laser (Bayfield et al.
3 mm 0) (4) is used for film deposition. 7 crn). 5x10 18 rnolecules/s in order to produce layers of different thickness. The transparent target is irradiated by the light (1) of a weakly focused excimer laser (20 mJ/crn2 , 193 nm) with a repetition rate between 3 and 5 Hz. Deflection plates (6) remove ! - - - - 55 Ctll ................... --! Fig. 22. Schematic of a laser ablation source [Cousins et al. (1989)]. ) laser beam, (2) cryostat, (3) target (MgF 2), (4) target deposition source, (5) aperture, (6) condenser plates, (7) aperture, (8) mass filter with ion source, (9) ion collector 1.