ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes by Arthur N. Popper, Anthony D. Hawkins, Richard R. Fay, David

By Arthur N. Popper, Anthony D. Hawkins, Richard R. Fay, David A. Mann, Soraya Bartol, Thomas J. Carlson, Sheryl Coombs, William T. Ellison, Roger L. Gentry, Michele B. Halvorsen, Svein L√łkkeborg, Peter H. Rogers, Brandon L. Southall, David G. Zeddies, Willi

This Technical document offers the result of a operating crew that was once demonstrated to figure out commonly acceptable sound publicity directions for fishes and sea turtles. After attention of the range of fish and sea turtles, instructions have been constructed for wide teams of animals, outlined incidentally they observe sound. diverse sound assets have been thought of when it comes to their acoustic features and applicable metrics outlined for size of the bought degrees. the consequent sound publicity directions are offered in a suite of tables. from time to time numerical guidance are supplied, expressed in acceptable metrics. while there have been inadequate info to help numerical values, the relative likelihood of results taking place used to be evaluated, even if the actual chance of results is dependent upon the got point. those sound publicity instructions, that are in line with the easiest medical info on the time of writing, may be taken care of as meantime. the expectancy is that with extra examine the tips could be sophisticated and extra cells within the tables accomplished. thoughts are recommend defining the examine requisites of maximum precedence for extending those period in-between publicity instructions.

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Additional resources for ASA S3/SC1.4 TR-2014 Sound Exposure Guidelines for Fishes and Sea Turtles: A Technical Report prepared by ANSI-Accredited Standards Committee S3/SC1 and registered with ANSI

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1, confidence in the validity of audiograms for many species is limited because of the poor acoustic conditions surrounding the experiments, uncertainties as to whether particle motion or pressure is the relevant sound dimension, and the methodologies applied to determine thresholds. One of the (many) problems with the dBht concept is that while a large proportion of fish species are primarily detecting particle motion, the audiograms used by Nedwell et al. (2007) to determine dBht (Species) levels are expressed in terms of sound pressure and are not appropriate for these species.

2 Sea Turtles As discussed in Chap. 3, the ear of sea turtles appears to be adapted to detect sound in water. The retention of air in the middle ear of these sea turtles suggests that they are able to detect sound pressure. 3 Larval Fish While few data are available on larval fishes, those species studied appear to have hearing frequency ranges similar to those of adults (Higgs et al. 2002; Egner and Mann 2005; Zeddies and Fay 2005; Wright et al. 2011), and similar acoustic startle thresholds (Zeddies and Fay 2005).

Popper and Clarke 1976; Scholik and Yan 2001,2002a, b; Amoser and Ladich, 2003; Smith et al. 2004a, b, 2006, 2011; Popper et al. 2005, 2007). While experiencing TTS, fishes may have a decrease in fitness in terms of communication, detecting predators or prey, and/or assessing their environment. , See Chap. 4 on Masking). However, the consequences of masking for fishes and sea turtles have not been fully examined. It is likely that increments in background sound within the hearing bandwidth of fishes and sea turtles may render the weakest sounds undetectable, render some sounds less detectable, and reduce the distance at which sound sources can be detected.

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