By Wolfgang Braun
The ebook describes RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction) used as a device for crystal development. New equipment utilizing RHEED to signify surfaces and interfaces in the course of crystal development by way of MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) are offered. detailed emphasis is wear RHEED depth oscillations, segregation phenomena, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and RHEED with rotating substrates.
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Additional resources for Applied RHEED: Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction During Crystal Growth
After 720 oscillations, the amplitude is still about 1/6 of the starting value Whereas the results presented so far suggest a correlation between surface roughness and R H E E D intensity, this notion is no longer supported when we look at the phase of the oscillations. For repeated measurements with the same growth conditions, the phase of the oscillations depends strongly on incidence angle and azimuth [167,168]. We cannot, therefore, generally identify any feature in the R H E E D oscillation cycle with a particular position 1 o 0 -- A 9 [ll0] / [0101 ,7 [1101 / f\.
All streaks show a slowly varying intensity distribution normal to the surface. No clear evidence of the facet streaks can be seen. 5 ~ above the specular spot is due to Kikuchi lines. Only streaks 13-18, counting from (00), resemble the simulated facet streaks, but they form a much lower angle towards the surface normal t h a n expected for model A. Instead, the angle is very similar to the one predicted for model B. In addition, the simulation of model A predicts dark areas on both sides next to the specular spot position, as well as a strong reflection on the ninth streak close to the shadow edge.
6533)/~-1, the reciprocal-lattice constant of GaAs; diffraction intensities are represented by the gray scale given at the bottom edge of each simulation. In the following, we will refer to the model by NStzel et al. 1 Different Models for the Surface Reconstruction of GaAs (113)A 45 Fig. 1. RHEED pattern of the GaAs (113)A surface reconstruction. 5(2)o at a sample temperature of 605 ~ et al. structure as model B. For comparison, a simulation of 22 planes (11 As and 11 Ga) of bulk material is given in Fig.