By Guy Bradley
This ebook, the 1st full-scale remedy of old Umbria in any language, takes a balanced view of the region's background within the first millennium BC, concentrating on neighborhood activities and motivations up to the impression of out of doors affects and Roman regulations.
Read or Download Ancient Umbria: State, Culture, and Identity in Central Italy from the Iron Age to the Augustan Era PDF
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Additional info for Ancient Umbria: State, Culture, and Identity in Central Italy from the Iron Age to the Augustan Era
66 67 Approaching the history of Umbria The overall impression gained from this survey of the epigraphy generated within Umbria in the fourth and third centuries is one of particularism. This obviously contrasts with the image of the Umbrians as an uniﬁed ethnic group provided by Greek writers in the ﬁfth and fourth centuries. 71 However, it is important to take account of the variety of types of evidence, and their particular perspectives. Early Greek authors were probably using a term, Umbrian, that was already in circulation in an Italian context, but they were prone to generalizing about ethnic groups, and are unlikely to have had a good understanding of the complex mix of ethnic group identities along the Adriatic coast, let alone inland.
With the Pelasgians (Dion. Hal. . . , . . , . . ), with the Ligurians (Dion. Hal. . . ) and with the Sabines (Strabo . . ). The Greek geographers Eudoxus of Cnidus (Periplus ) and Pseudo-Scylax (Periplus ), probably writing in the ﬁrst half of the fourth century , record that the Umbrians occupied part of the Adriatic seaboard, a notice which correlates with those recording their occupation of the south-eastern Po valley around Ravenna. 49 These early references to Umbrians must originate from the contact between local populations and Greek sailors and merchants travelling up the Adriatic to Spina and the Po valley.
Is unclear. 51 Livy . . ; Pliny, NH . . 52 See Colonna, ‘Ricerche sugli Etruschi e sugli Umbri’. 53 Dion. , . . –: ‘The peoples of Italy have been confused under a common name quite as often as any peoples elsewhere. ’ G. Colonna, ‘La Romagna fra Etruschi, Umbri e Pelasgi’, in La Romagna tra VI e IV sec. C. nel quadro della protostoria dell’Italia centrale (Bologna, ), –. Approaching the history of Umbria It is also worth noting that the use of the ‘Umbrian’ toponyms in Etruria recorded by Pliny (the river Umbro and the tractus Umbriae of NH .