By Leonard Susskind

Over the past decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by way of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein’s consciousness that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound concerns in regards to the lack of details in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in a global with gravity. for 2 a long time those questions questioned theoretical physicists and at last resulted in a revolution within the method we expect approximately area, time, topic and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a impressive precept referred to as "The Holographic Principle", that's now an enormous concentration of consciousness in gravitational study, quantum box concept and straight forward particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String concept, develops and explains those thoughts.

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**Example text**

34) Thus, to the Fido near r = 2M G, the Schwarzschild clock appears to run at a very rapid rate. 17. The spatial location of the Fidos can be labeled by the angular coordinates (θ, φ) and any one of the radial variables r, r∗ , or ρ. Classically the Fidos can be thought of as mathematical ﬁctions or real but arbitrarily light 22 Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution systems suspended by arbitrarily light threads from some sort of suspension system built around the black hole at a great distance.

The distant observer collects information that arrives at any instant from his backward light cone. Evidently such an observer never actually sees events on the The Schwarzschild Black Hole 19 areas Match here of 2-sp B’ A r < t= G M H r 2M =2 8 r=0 + G r=0 - Fig. 10 Penrose diagram for collapsing shell of massless particles 8 r= Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution Di sta nt ob se rv er 20 Fig. 11 Distant observer to collapsing spherical shell horizon. In this sense the horizon must be regarded as at the end of time.

Thus, according to the Fidos, the ﬂuctuation lasts for an inﬁnite time and is therefore not virtual at all. Real particles are seen being injected into the Rindler space from the horizon, and eventually fall back to the horizon. To state it diﬀerently, the horizon behaves like a hot membrane radiating and reabsorbing thermal energy. A natural question to ask is whether the thermal eﬀects are “real”. For example, we may ask whether any such thermal eﬀects are seen by freely falling observers carrying their thermometers with them as they pass through the horizon.