By American Water Works Association
This handbook courses operators within the choice, install, and upkeep of air valves in consuming water provide functions. insurance contains air valve kinds, valve situation, valve orifice sizing, water hammer, deploy, operation, safeguard, and upkeep.
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Additional resources for Air-Release, Air/Vacuum & Combination Air Valves
Paul 1989. Hydraulics of Pipelines, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Wisner, Paul E. 1975. Removal of Air From Water Lines, Journal of the Hydraulics Division, ASCE, February. J. Surge Reference Manual, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kentucky, latest edition. AWWA M11. 1989. Steel Pipe-A Guide for Design and Installation, 3rd edition. Denver, Colo. AWWA Standard for Air-Release, AirNacuum and Combination Air Valves for Waterworks Service, AWWA C512-92 (1st edition), Denver, Colo. Colorado State University.
Depth of Burial Valves should be buried below the frost line to prevent freezing. Where combination air valves are used, those in a single body are less likely to freeze than those in separate bodies. Freezing Suitable insulation and electrical heat tape should be provided in areas prone to freezing. Frozen air valves will not operate and can be damaged. Thermally activated relief valves (typically supplied in 3/8 or '/2 in. 19 mm or 13 mml diameter) can be installed on the valve body t o release water and reduce the possibility of damage from freezing.
Inspection When inspecting air valves, isolate the valve by closing the shutoff valve before putting hands and fingers into the valve outlet. If the air valve should suddenly close, hands or fingers could be injured or lost. Pressurized air can also be trapped between the shutoff valve and the air valve; therefore, any removal of air valve bolts, plugs, or covers must be done with extreme care to release trapped air slowly and prevent serious injury. Pipe1ine Fi I I ing Thread protectors and packing material should be removed from air valves prior to filling the pipeline.