By Robert J. Brulle
During this e-book Robert Brulle attracts on a extensive variety of empirical and theoretical learn to enquire the effectiveness of U.S. environmental teams. Brulle exhibits how serious Theory--in specific the paintings of J?rgen Habermas--can extend our figuring out of the social factors of environmental degradation and the political activities essential to care for it. He then develops either a realistic and a ethical argument for broad-based democratization of society as a prerequisite to the fulfillment of ecological sustainability.From the views of body research, source mobilization, and ancient sociology, utilizing facts on multiple hundred environmental teams, Brulle examines the middle ideals, constructions, investment, and political practices of a large choice of environmental enterprises. He identifies the social approaches that foster the advance of a democratic environmental flow and people who prevent it. He concludes with feedback for the way environmental teams could make their organizational practices extra democratic and politically powerful.
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Extra resources for Agency, Democracy, and Nature: The U.S. Environmental Movement from a Critical Theory Perspective
The actions of the state are insulated from public scrutiny by four processes. First, access to institutional policies is limited through the use of a scientific discourse in the development and analysis of government policy. By creating a technocratic, value-neutral discourse, it removes moral considerations from public policy and limits public input. ” Without the power to speak the specialized discourse of science, the lifeworld is without a voice, and citizens are reduced to the status of a population to be managed by the state.
This inability of the market to maintain itself creates a politically maintained private market in which socialized production and private appropriation of production exist in a system legitimized by formal democratic rules. This creates a conflict between the normative justifications for col- Communicative Action and the Social Order 35 lective decisions. Market outcomes are legitimized as the outcomes of democratic will formation. This leads to a series of contradictions and crises in Western society.
At the core of this process is the repoliticization of the market. As the state increasingly intervenes in the economy, the separation of the market and the state is destroyed. The intervention of the state in the economic process to avoid economic crisis and to ensure capital accumulation results in the politicization of market activities (O’Connor 1973: 13–39). The legitimacy of the social order is instead based on the outcomes of both the market and state action (Habermas 1971: 68). This makes the state responsible for maintaining social stability and ameliorating problems that create sufficient political opposition to the existing order.