By Nikolay Milkov (auth.)
This ebook is a historic research of the major philosophical circulate in England within the 20th century. In seven chapters, the highbrow improvement of the main admired representatives of analytic philosophy-Moore, Russell and Wittgenstein in Cambridge, and Ryle, Austin, Strawson and Dummett in Oxford-is traced. The booklet doesn't goal, even though, at offering a narrative. this implies, exceptionally, that generalisations and conclusions are lowered to a minimum-an technique followed in an endeavour to keep away from the risk of subjectivism that reading the philosophers below scrutiny may impose. My wish is that via following this aproach, my inves tigation will stimulate readers to make their very own generalisations and conclusions at the foundation of the objectively offered information. as an alternative, my objective is to articulate a perfect, entire description of the phil osophical texts of the seven most important analytic philosophers in England within the 20th century. For this function, all their articles and books were sifted via that allows you to opt for the main consultant components. For seen purposes, in simple terms the chapters on Russell and Wittgenstein, and-to a lesser extent-the bankruptcy on Moore, are extra theoretical.
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Extra info for A Hundred Years of English Philosophy
For instance, he objected that J. S. Mill's statement 'Pleasure alone is the object of all our desires' is just as confused as is the statement 'Colour is the only end of perception'. Colours are always of some kind-yellow, blue or green, for example; there are no 'colours as such'. In a similar way, there are completely different types of pleasures. So the statement that 'our objective' is an unspecific pleasure is nonsense. A further conceptual confusion of this type is Sidgwick's 'proof that people only wish for pleasures.
The lectures Some Main Problems of Philosophy were extraordinarily well prepared. They build up a coherent, systematic whole, to be compared only with another logico-philosophical 'crystal'-the Tractatus. The negative side of Moore's project was the radical scholasticising of the New Look philosophy, a turn later criticised by Ramsey. As a result, while some intellectuals of the time, for example Virginia Woolf, did read Principia Ethica, albeit with difficulty, we can scarcely imagine many of them absorbing anything positive from Moore's 1910-11 lectures.
The point is that, besides being descriptive, metaphysics can also be critical. In this stance, metaphysics compares different entities: Many philosophers have spent a great deal of their time in trying to define more clearly what is the difference between these various sorts of things: for instance, what is the difference between a material object and an act of consciousness, between matter and mind, between God and man, etc. (p. ). This activity of analysing the data (concepts) to hand, in order to find new things in them which had remained hidden thus far, is typically a priori.