A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures, 2nd by National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (Editors)

This file addresses the size of radioactivity and bargains with the sizeable variety of varied radioactive fabrics that experience develop into to be had within the final 3 many years, from nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, for purposes in medication, clinical examine, and undefined. It additionally addresses low-level radioactivity measurements for the tracking of radioactivity in environmental media, comparable to air and water, in reference to the keep watch over of radioactive effluents linked to the construction of nuclear strength or using radionuclides.
Content:
• entrance subject
• Preface to the 1st version
• Preface to the second one variation
• desk of Contents
1. creation
2. Physics of a few Radiation Detectors
three. basic or Direct Measurements of task in Radioactive Decay
four. oblique or Comparative Measurements of task in Radioactive Decay
five. options for the guidance of ordinary assets for Radioactivity Measurements
6. The Assay of Radioactivity and the id of Radionuclides in Environmental, scientific, and business Laboratories
7. facts
eight. Measurements insurance, criteria, Traceability and the assertion of Uncertainty
Appendix A: Nuclear-Decay information for chosen Radionuclides
Appendix B: The records of Radioactive Decay
• References A-J
• References K-Z
• The NCRP
• NCRP courses
• Index

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Sample text

A further spread can also be caused by a nonuniform center wire and by end-effects, both of which cause varying field distributions along the wire. However, in most cases the shape of the outer electrode is unimportant, because multiplication takes place very close to the anode wire, where the electric field gradient is highest (Eq. 1). Asymmetric shapes of the outer electrode may result, however, in significant variation in electron-collection times from different regions of the sensitive volume of the counter.

5). Here the geometrical efficiency is unity, and all corrections for scattering and absorption outside the source are eliminated. For very thin, or "mass-less," sources of alpha or beta particles of not too low an energy, practically 100-percent detection efficiency can be achieved in the case of 47r gas proportional counters. 8) are also forms of 4 r counting in which the total detection efficiency closely approaches 100 percent. One of the oldest methods of direct standardization of activity is that of defined-solid-angle counting where the defined solid angle is 17r steradians or less.

PHYSICS OF SOME RADIATION DETECTORS For practical applications three classes of quenchers may be distinguished, namely, diluting, chemical, and color quenchers. The first class consists of substances that dilute the mixture and thus reduce the probabilities of absorption of ionizing radiation by the solvent, and of the various energy transfer processes that follow the absorption of radiation. Aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols fall into this categoryChemical quenchers interfere in the scintillation process by deexcitation of the solvent.

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