By Daniel C. Snell
A significant other to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and common readers a entire evaluation of close to japanese civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the good.
- Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians
- Places specific emphasis on social and cultural historical past
- Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and sleek worlds
- Provides an invaluable bibliographical advisor to this box of study
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Additional resources for A Companion to the Ancient Near East
However, the effect of external troubles could not be avoided forever. In spite of various expeditions carried on in Subartu (Upper Mesopotamia) and on the Zagros piedmont, and in spite of the ‘‘Martu-wall’’ erected from Tigris to Euphrates in order to stop, or at least to check, the infiltration of the West Semitic nomads, the Martu finally succeeded in penetrating in substantial number into Mesopotamia, possibly driven out of their homeland in the Syrian steppe by an unfavorable climatic change.
CHAPTER TWO From Sedentism to States, 10,000–3000 BCE Augusta McMahon The first sedentary communities in the Near East appeared about 10,000 B C E , and by 3000 B C E we find urbanized complex societies. The path between these dates is peppered with major innovations – farming and herding, pottery, irrigation, organized religion, public art and architecture. It is temptingly easy to view this span of time as exhibiting progression to civilization. But there are unresolved debates and biases in our approach to this crucial era.
The Persian empire of the Achaemenid dynasty was not the heir of the loose Median confederacy, but rather of the Elamite tradition. Persia was virtually congruent with Elam in its narrow definition, and the Persian administration at Persepolis used the Elamite language and script for its archives. The empire was founded by Cyrus II, called the Great, who defeated the Medes in 550, annexed most of the Iranian plateau, and then conquered Lydia in 547, and Babylonia in 539, while the date of annexation of Bactria and Sogdiana, the ‘‘outer Iran’’ of Central Asia, remains unclear.